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Computing, Robotics, and Imaging for the Surgical Platform

Journal of Computational Surgery Cover Image

Table 2 Factors that influence presence (Witmer and Singer [ 63 ])

From: Towards immersive virtual reality (iVR): a route to surgical expertise

Control factors • Degree of control
• Immediacy of control
• Anticipation of events
• Mode of control
• Physical environment modifiability
Sensory factors • Environment richness
• Multimodal presentation
• Consistency of multimodal information
• Degree of movement perception
Distraction factors • Isolation from the physical world
• Selective attention
• Interface awareness
Realism factors • Scene realism
• Information consistency with objective world
• Meaningfulness of experience
• Separation anxiety/disorientation