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Computing, Robotics, and Imaging for the Surgical Platform

Journal of Computational Surgery Cover Image

Table 3 Summary of results of the simulation campaign

From: Particle filter-based robust adaptive control for closed-loop administration of sodium nitroprusside

Batch-stream t 0 t 1 t 2 t pp t npp K rel α rel T rel t c 1 t c 2 t sat t ±5 t ±10 t ±15 ε max ε min ε avg
  [s] [s] [s] [s] [s] (%) (%) (%) [s] [s] [s] [s] [s] [s] [mmHg] [mmHg] [mmHg]
i-a 604 9,396 0 10,000 0 69 11 -24 396 360 0 9,442 9,995 10,000 8.43 -8.33 0.16
  (128) (130) (0) (0) (0) (5.0) (3.0) (5.0) (46) (59) (0) (104) (14) (0) (0.72) (0.95) 0.05
i-b 5,986 4,014 0 9,640 360 40 -4.0 -20 397 332 0 8,752 9,968 9,999 11.00 -10.28 0.43
  (788) (788) (0) (512) (512) (5.0) (3.0) (3.0) (74) (72) (0) (212) (147) (0.6) (1.46) (1.18) (0.06)
ii-a 4,926 3,790 1,280 9,826 167 63 3 25 390 375 0 9,356 9,944 9,994 8.56 -8.43 0.21
  (4,338) (3,821) (2,414) (252) (252) (79) (24) (54) (126) (101) (0) (612) (146) (34) (1.98) (1.98) (0.22)
ii-b 4,804 4,443 716 9,478 522 42 2 27 392 359 0 8,856 9,907 9,990 11.06 -9.85 0.43
  (3,038) (2,682) (1,324) (576) (576) (54) (22) (57) (101) (75) (0) (868) (87) (40) (3.24) (2.98) (0.25)
iii-a 2,971 5,358 1,617 9,898 102 85 14 10 421 385 0 9,289 9,941 9,992 9.32 -8.97 0.24
  (2,297) (2,166) (1,911) (204) (204) (73) (19) (26) (120) (110) (0) (435) (114) (42) (2.10) (2.72) (0.23)
iii-b 4,710 4,460 731 9,396 604 49 2.0 10 428 380 0 8,710 9,898 9,991 12.03 -10.94 0.60
  (1,938) (1,772) (882) (694) (694) (39) (15) (24) (124) (104) (0) (612) (151) (41) (2.44) (2.90) (0.35)
iv-a 2,152 5,802 1,938 9,860 140 77 12 9 408 384 0 9,405 9,974 10,000 8.78 -8.51 0.21
  (2,096) (1,945) (2,135) (207) (207) (59) (21) (25) (89) (96) (0) (398) (88) (15) (1.86) (1.72) (0.15)
iv-b 4,701 4,474 729 9,349 651 45 3.0 11 408 366 0 8,860 9,936 9,995 11.44 -10.15 0.50
  (1,730) (1,744) (970) (796) (796) (38) (17) (25) (94) (101) (0) (471) (90) (31) (2.15) (1.95) (0.21)
v-a 2,834 5,350 1,689 9,898 102 94 13 12 419 404 0 9,164 9,930 9,994 9.95 -8.95 0.37
  (2,159) (2,030) (1,344) (205) (205) (62) (18) (25) (110) (97) (0) (117) (116) (26) (2.30) (1.71) (0.36)
v-b 4,529 4,568 848 9,298 702 48 0.0 14 390 405 0 8,450 9,846 9,976 13.15 -11.76 0.68
  (1,663) (1,534) (882) (871) (871) (31) (15) (26) (107) (124) (0) (674) (220) (80) (3.64) (3.84) (0.47)
  1. Results are provided as the mean value across a batch of simulations, with standard deviations shown in parentheses. List of performance indices: t i , time the model identified with highest probability is the i th neighbour of the true response model; tpp, time spent by the closed-loop system in a provably performant state; tnpp, time spent by the closed-loop system in a nonprovably performant state; Xrel, average relative error in the estimate of parameter X over a 10,000-s simulation; t c 1 , 2 , transition time for first and second setpoint change; tsat, time of saturation of control action; t±δ, time the controlled MAP remained within δ x mmHg of the target MAP; εmax,min,avg, greatest positive and negative values and average MAP error over a 10,000-s simulation.