Alterations in spiking and LFP with simulated ketamine application. Spike raster (top) and local field potentials (LFP) (bottom) of baseline, ketamine washin, washout. Raster plot at top shows the three types of cells in the model - the ‘OLM’ cells are the ones where the ketamine effect occurs, as can be seen by noting the reduced firing during the period of application. Augmentation of fast oscillation with some reduction in modulation by slow oscillation during the washin is readily seen in the LFP. Vertical dotted lines mark times of washin and washout. Modified with permission from Neymotin et al. .